So your blood sugar runs high-however what is considered ‘high’? It is safe to say that they are marginally hoisted, or would they say they are far over your objective range? It is safe to say that they are enhancing with time or do they continue climbing? The initial step to glucose control for individuals with diabetes is understanding your numbers, which can enable you to recognize individual examples and keep tabs on your development after some time. There are three principle blood sugar measures to consider: Fasting blood sugar, Post-prandial blood sugar, and Hemoglobin A1c.
Fasting blood sugar alludes to the glucose level estimated following a few hours without sustenance, similar to when you test before anything else.
Now, your body has officially used whatever sugars you devoured the prior night and is currently running off of put away starches which implies it is attempting to be exceptionally proficient; you ought to have enough glucose in your blood to enable your cells to run yet very little more than that. Any raised dimensions are an indication that something is off and your body can’t move glucose into your cells ideally. Regardless of whether this is because of an absence of insulin (by and large sort I diabetes or advanced sort II) or on the grounds that your cells are not as touchy to the insulin as they ought to be (for the most part type II), a high fasting glucose at a physical test is frequently a first cautioning indication of diabetes for patients. An ordinary range is 70-100 mg/dL, with levels under 70 thought about unusually low and expecting mediation to bring them back up. Levels somewhere in the range of 100 and 125 mg/dL fall inside the prediabetic run, which means you are in danger for diabetes and have some impedance of your glucose use, and levels more than 125 mg/dL qualify as one indication of conceivable diabetes.
Post-prandial blood sugar basically means levels ‘subsequent to eating.’ This test is normally taken two hours after your last supper, and the numbers will for the most part be higher in light of the fact that you have quite recently presented an extensive volume of glucose into your framework. Some level of a glucose spike is ordinary in the wake of eating; your body processes whatever starch you devoured, separates it into little glucose particles that enter your circulation system, and insulin moves that glucose into the cells where it’s required. Two hours in the wake of eating, a typical glucose level would come back to under 140 mg/dL. For individuals with diabetes, that number is frequently more than 180 mg/dL, which demonstrates that your body is having a troublesome time transporting the glucose from your circulation system into your cells. Your specialist may formally test this with an Oral Glucose Resilience Test where you expend a controlled measure of glucose pursued by blood testing two hours after the fact, and levels more than 200 mg/dL are considered inside the diabetic range.
Hemoglobin A1c (regularly abbreviated to ‘A1c’) is somewhat not quite the same as the other two tests since it mirrors your normal blood sugar in the course of the most recent 90 days instead of at a set timeframe. Your outcome is given as a rate that indicates how much leftover glucose is adhered to your red platelets, and a higher rate implies higher in general flowing dimensions of glucose. A typical A1c is under 5.7%, with the prediabetes run tumbling from 5.7% to 6.4%. An A1c of 6.5% or higher is a noteworthy indication of conceivable diabetes as it demonstrates that your glucose will in general run a lot higher than the ideal range.
When an individual is determined to have diabetes, there are comparable objectives that demonstrate great control: Fasting blood glucose ought to be under 130 mg/dL; 2-hour postprandial dimensions ought to be under 180 mg/dL, and Hemoglobin A1c ought to be under 7%.
*Some doctors may prefer fasting blood sugars of 80 or over to minimize risk of hypoglycemia, which is often the case for elderly patients. All of these numbers can also be impacted by other medical factors including medications, chronic diseases, and inflammation, so the results alone may not constitute a diagnosis – always speak with your physician if you are concerned.
These ranges are also slightly different for pregnant women as they have a larger volume of blood and therefore will have automatically lower concentrations of glucose. Imagine diluting 4 ounces of iced tea with 4 ounces of water – it may taste be less sweet as it is less concentrated, but the entire glass will still have the same amount of sugar as the 4 ounces of iced tea alone, so the low concentration is somewhat deceitful. Instead, physicians generally test for gestational diabetes (the onset of new diabetes symptoms during pregnancy) with an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test where they test their blood sugar response to a concentrated high-glucose drink.
Nutrition is a major influencer of blood sugar control. The carbohydrates you consume correlate directly to your increase in blood sugar, though the magnitude of change is different for each individual. I’m familiar with the tendency of many patients to start medication and believe it negates any need for dietary intervention, but combining a carbohydrate-consistent diet with medications will optimize your results. There is solid research that diet modification can help to decrease your A1c while also helping you better understand how your food choices impact your blood sugars, and many endocrinologists routinely refer patients to dietitians for medical nutrition therapy.